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Cyber Security 101: 5 Essential Do’s and Don’ts You Need to Know Right Now



To navigate our digital landscape safely, it is crucial to understand & implement effective cyber security practices. This article aims to shed light on essential do’s & don’ts that can help protect your digital life & safeguard your online presence. By following these guidelines, you can significantly reduce the risk of falling victim to cyber attacks & ensure a safer digital experience.

The focus of this article will be on five key do’s & don’ts that form the foundation of a robust cyber security strategy. Each do & don’t addresses a critical aspect of protecting your digital life & offers practical advice that you can easily implement. From strengthening your passwords & utilising two-factor authentication to regularly backing up your data & staying informed about the latest threats, these recommendations will empower you to take proactive measures & fortify your online defences.

By exploring these do’s & don’ts, we aim to provide you with actionable steps that can make a real difference in enhancing your cyber security posture. Whether you are an individual user concerned about your personal privacy or a business professional responsible for safeguarding sensitive data, the principles covered in this article are applicable & relevant.

Do: Strengthen Your Passwords

Passwords serve as the first line of defence against cybercriminals attempting to gain unauthorised access to our personal & sensitive information. Weak passwords are akin to leaving the front door of our digital lives wide open, inviting cyber threats & potential breaches. By strengthening our passwords, we create a robust barrier that can significantly enhance our overall security posture.

Cybercriminals employ various techniques, such as brute-force attacks & dictionary-based password cracking, to crack weak passwords. These methods exploit common pitfalls, such as easily guessable phrases, common dictionary words or simple numeric sequences. By using strong passwords, we make these attacks exponentially more challenging & time-consuming, discouraging malicious actors & reducing the risk of unauthorised access.

Read our blog about how insecure passwords can have an impact you and how to protect yourself from the most common cyber attacks.

Don’t: Neglect Software Updates

Software updates, also known as patches or fixes, are released by software developers to address known security vulnerabilities & improve the overall functionality of the applications & systems we rely on daily. These updates are the result of extensive research, testing & collaboration between developers & cybersecurity experts. They aim to counteract the evolving tactics employed by cybercriminals & safeguard users’ digital assets.

When a vulnerability is discovered in a software program, it becomes a potential entry point for attackers to exploit. By neglecting software updates, we leave these vulnerabilities unaddressed, providing an open invitation for cybercriminals to infiltrate our systems. Hackers actively seek out outdated software versions, as they know that many users fail to keep up with updates. Regularly installing updates ensures that your software remains fortified against the latest threats, minimising the risk of compromise.

Outdated software lacks the security measures implemented in the latest updates, leaving users vulnerable to attacks that have already been mitigated. This is particularly true for operating systems, web browsers & popular applications that are frequently targeted by hackers. By neglecting updates, you inadvertently create an entry point for cybercriminals to compromise your system, steal sensitive information or even gain control of your device.

Regular software updates are crucial in closing these security gaps & ensuring the longevity of your digital defences. They often include essential security patches that fix vulnerabilities, reinforce encryption protocols & enhance overall system resilience. By keeping your software up to date, you stay one step ahead of cyber threats, reducing the likelihood of falling victim to an attack.

Do: Utilise Two-Factor Authentication (2FA)

Two-factor authentication is a security mechanism that adds an additional layer of verification to the traditional username & password login process. It requires users to provide two separate types of credentials to gain access to their online accounts. These credentials typically fall into three categories:

  1. Something you know: This refers to your username & password combination, which serves as the first factor of authentication.
  2. Something you have: This involves a physical device or object that you possess, such as a mobile phone, hardware token or security key. This device generates a unique, time-sensitive code that serves as the second factor of authentication.
  3. Something you are: This encompasses biometric factors like fingerprints, facial recognition or iris scans, which provide a unique identifier for authentication purposes.

By combining at least two of these factors, 2FA significantly strengthens the security of your online accounts. Even if a cybercriminal manages to obtain your password, they would still require access to the second factor to successfully authenticate & gain entry. This additional layer of verification makes it exponentially more difficult for malicious actors to compromise your accounts.

Implementing 2FA is a simple yet powerful way to enhance the security of your online accounts. Many online services, including social media platforms, email providers & financial institutions, offer 2FA as an option in their account settings. Once enabled, each time you log in to your account, you will be prompted to provide the second factor in addition to your password. This added step ensures that even if your password is compromised, unauthorised access is thwarted unless the second factor is provided.

It’s important to note that while 2FA significantly enhances security, it is not foolproof. It is still crucial to maintain strong, unique passwords & stay vigilant against phishing attempts or social engineering attacks. 2FA should be seen as an additional layer of defence in conjunction with other security best practices.

Phishing attacks & malware distribution are two tactics frequently employed by cybercriminals to deceive unsuspecting individuals & gain unauthorised access to their sensitive information or compromise their devices. These threats often rely on social engineering techniques to trick users into clicking on malicious links or opening infected email attachments.

Phishing attacks involve fraudulent emails, messages or websites that impersonate trusted entities, such as banks, social media platforms or well-known companies. These deceptive communications aim to persuade recipients into divulging their personal information, such as login credentials, credit card details or social security numbers. By clicking on suspicious links within these messages, users unwittingly expose themselves to potential identity theft or financial fraud. Read our article to know how to Protect Yourself from Phishing Scams.

Malware, on the other hand, refers to malicious software designed to infiltrate & harm computer systems. Malware can be delivered through infected email attachments, deceptive downloads or compromised websites. Once executed, it can compromise the security & integrity of your devices, enabling cybercriminals to steal data, gain unauthorised access or even hold your files hostage through ransomware attacks.

Do: Regularly Backup Your Data

Cyber incidents, such as ransomware attacks, hardware failures, accidental deletions or natural disasters, can result in the loss or unavailability of critical data. Without proper backups, the consequences can be devastating, leading to irreversible damage, financial loss or severe disruption to personal & professional activities.

Data backups provide a safety net, enabling you to recover your valuable information in the event of a cyber incident. By regularly creating copies of your data & storing them securely, you ensure that even if your primary data becomes compromised, you have a fallback option. This mitigates the impact of incidents & allows for swift recovery, reducing downtime, frustration & potential loss.

When it comes to data backups, adopting a comprehensive strategy ensures the protection of your valuable information. Here are some key backup strategies & tools to consider:

  1. Regular & automated backups: Establish a routine for backing up your data at regular intervals. This could be daily, weekly or monthly, depending on the volume & importance of your data. Utilise automated backup tools or software to simplify the process & ensure consistency.
  2. Multiple backup locations: Store your backups in different physical & virtual locations to minimise the risk of a single point of failure. This could involve using external hard drives, network-attached storage (NAS), cloud storage services or a combination of these options.
  3. Offline backups: Consider creating offline backups, such as external hard drives or offline storage devices, that are disconnected from your network when not in use. This helps protect your backups from being compromised in the event of a cyber incident.
  4. Encryption: Prioritise the security of your backups by encrypting them. Encryption ensures that even if your backups fall into the wrong hands, the data remains protected & inaccessible without the decryption key.

Don’t: Share Personal Information Unnecessarily

When we share personal information unnecessarily, we expose ourselves to potential privacy breaches. Details such as our full name, address, phone number, date of birth, financial information & even our daily routines can be pieced together by those with nefarious intentions. This data can be used to impersonate us, gain unauthorised access to our accounts or launch targeted attacks aimed at compromising our security & well-being.

Read our guide to online privacy and 7 ways to remain safe online to know how to remain safe in the digital world.

Do: Educate Yourself & Stay Informed

Cybersecurity awareness allows you to understand the potential dangers lurking in the digital realm & recognise the signs of malicious activities. It enables you to identify & respond appropriately to phishing attempts, malware attacks, social engineering tactics & other cyber threats. With the right knowledge, you can establish strong security measures, protect your personal information & contribute to a safer online environment.

Staying informed about the ever-evolving landscape of cyber threats is crucial to maintaining effective security practices. Here are some resources & methods you can utilise to stay updated:

  1. Security Blogs & News Websites: Follow reputable security blogs & news websites that cover the latest cyber threats, vulnerabilities & security best practices. These sources often provide insights, analysis & practical advice to help you stay one step ahead of potential risks.
  2. Cybersecurity Organisations & Certifications: Engage with established cybersecurity organisations & explore their educational resources. Organisations such as the National Cyber Security Alliance (NCSA), the Cybersecurity & Infrastructure Security Agency (CISA) & the International Information System Security Certification Consortium (ISC)² offer valuable guidance, training materials & certifications to enhance your knowledge & expertise.
  3. Security Alerts & Mailing Lists: Subscribe to security alerts & mailing lists provided by security vendors, government agencies or cybersecurity experts. These alerts keep you informed about emerging threats, vulnerabilities & necessary actions to mitigate risks.
  4. Social Media Communities: Join cybersecurity-focused communities & follow industry experts on social media platforms. Engaging with these communities allows you to stay informed about the latest trends, news & discussions in the cybersecurity field. It also provides an opportunity to network with like-minded individuals & share knowledge & experiences.

By actively seeking out these resources & methods, you can cultivate a strong cybersecurity knowledge base & keep pace with the ever-changing threat landscape. Remember that cybersecurity is an ongoing journey & staying informed is essential to maintaining effective protection for yourself & your digital assets.

Don’t: Ignore Mobile Security

Mobile devices face a range of potential threats, including malware infections, data breaches, phishing attacks & device theft. Malicious actors leverage various techniques, such as fake apps, malicious links & social engineering, to exploit vulnerabilities & gain unauthorised access to personal data or control over the device. Ignoring mobile security leaves us vulnerable to these threats & the potential consequences, including financial loss, identity theft & reputational damage.

To protect your mobile devices & safeguard your sensitive information, it is essential to follow best practices for mobile security. Here are some crucial steps to consider:

  1. Use Strong Lock Screen Protection: Enable a strong PIN, password or biometric authentication, such as fingerprint or facial recognition, to secure access to your device. This provides an essential layer of defence against unauthorised access, especially if your device is lost or stolen.
  2. Download Apps from Trusted Sources: Stick to official app stores, such as Google Play Store or Apple App Store & avoid downloading apps from third-party sources. These official stores have security measures in place to minimise the risk of downloading malicious apps. Read user reviews & check the app’s permissions before installing it.
  3. Be Cautious of Public Wi-Fi: Exercise caution when connecting to public Wi-Fi networks, as they can be insecure & prone to eavesdropping. Avoid accessing sensitive information, such as banking or personal accounts, while connected to public Wi-Fi. Instead, use a virtual private network (VPN) for secure browsing & data encryption.
  4. Enable Remote Tracking & Wiping: Activate the remote tracking & wiping features available for your device. In the event of loss or theft, these features allow you to track the location of your device & remotely erase its data to prevent unauthorised access.
  5. Use App Permissions Wisely: Pay attention to the permissions requested by apps during installation & only grant the necessary permissions. Be cautious of apps that request excessive access to personal data or device functions unrelated to their functionality.

By following these best practices, you can enhance the security of your mobile devices, protect your personal information & reduce the risk of falling victim to mobile-specific cyber threats.

Do: Enable Firewall & Use Antivirus Software

Firewalls act as the first line of defence, monitoring & controlling the incoming & outgoing network traffic. They create a barrier between your devices & the internet, effectively filtering out potentially harmful data packets & unauthorised connections. By analysing network traffic, firewalls can detect & block suspicious activities, preventing unauthorised access to your systems & keeping hackers at bay.

On the other hand, antivirus software serves as a critical tool for identifying, detecting & eliminating malware, including viruses, worms, Trojans & ransomware. Antivirus software scans files, applications & websites for known malware signatures & behavioural patterns, preventing infections & alerting you to potential threats. By regularly updating virus definitions, antivirus software remains equipped to combat the evolving landscape of malware.

By enabling firewalls & utilising reliable antivirus software, you create a robust defence against cyber threats. Remember to configure & update these tools regularly, practise safe browsing habits & consider comprehensive security solutions for comprehensive protection.

Don’t: Fall for Social Engineering Attacks

Social engineering attacks are devious & manipulative schemes employed by cybercriminals to exploit human psychology & gain unauthorised access to sensitive information or systems. These attacks rely on tricking individuals into revealing confidential data, granting access to secure systems or performing actions that benefit the attacker.

Cybercriminals employ a range of manipulative tactics to deceive their targets, including:

  1. Phishing: Phishing attacks involve sending deceptive emails, text messages or instant messages that appear to be from trusted sources. These messages often request personal information, such as passwords or credit card details or prompt recipients to click on malicious links or download infected attachments.
  2. Pretexting: Pretexting involves creating a fictional scenario or pretext to manipulate individuals into divulging sensitive information. Attackers may pose as trusted individuals, such as coworkers, IT personnel or customer service representatives, to gain the target’s trust & obtain confidential data.
  3. Baiting: Baiting attacks exploit human curiosity or desire for freebies. Attackers offer enticing rewards, such as free merchandise or software, in exchange for personal information or system access. Baiting attacks often involve physical media, such as infected USB drives or fake CDs, left in public spaces to entice unsuspecting individuals.
  4. Tailgating: Tailgating occurs when an attacker gains unauthorised physical access to a restricted area by closely following an authorised person. The attacker takes advantage of the individual’s natural inclination to hold the door open for others or not question someone in a hurry, thereby bypassing security measures.

Read our blog titled “Don’t become a victim of social engineering” to know how to protect yourself from such attacks.


Cybersecurity is not something to be taken lightly, as the consequences of neglecting it can be severe & far-reaching. By following the do’s & don’ts outlined in this blog, you can significantly enhance your online security & safeguard your sensitive information from falling into the wrong hands. While no security measure can guarantee absolute protection, implementing these proactive steps significantly reduces the risk of falling victim to cyber threats.

Remember, cybersecurity is a continuous effort. Stay vigilant, adapt to evolving threats & stay informed about new security practices & technologies. By doing so, you can better protect your digital life & enjoy the benefits of the digital age without compromising your privacy & security. Take charge of your cybersecurity today & encourage others to do the same. By raising awareness & promoting a culture of security, we can collectively create a safer digital environment for everyone.


What makes a strong password?

A strong password is one that is complex & unique. It should be at least eight characters long & include a combination of uppercase & lowercase letters, numbers & special characters. Avoid using easily guessable information such as your name, birthdate or common words. Remember to use different passwords for different accounts to minimise the impact if one account is compromised.

How often should I update my software & why?

It is recommended to update your software as soon as updates are available. Regular software updates are crucial because they often include patches for security vulnerabilities. Hackers are constantly finding new ways to exploit weaknesses in software & updates help address these vulnerabilities & protect your devices from potential threats. By keeping your software up to date, you reduce the risk of falling victim to attacks targeting outdated software.

What is two-factor authentication (2FA) & why is it important?

Two-factor authentication (2FA) is an additional layer of security that adds an extra step to the login process. It requires you to provide two forms of verification to access an account, typically something you know (like a password) & something you have (like a unique code sent to your phone). 2FA is important because even if someone manages to obtain your password, they still need the second factor to gain access. It significantly enhances the security of your online accounts & reduces the risk of unauthorised access.

To identify & avoid suspicious links & email attachments, there are a few key things to keep in mind. First, be cautious of unsolicited emails or messages from unknown senders, especially if they contain urgent requests or enticing offers. Hover over links to check the URL’s legitimacy before clicking on them. Look for misspellings, unusual domain names or suspicious email addresses. Additionally, be wary of email attachments, particularly those with unusual file extensions or from unknown sources. Always verify the sender’s identity & consider scanning attachments with an updated antivirus program before opening them.

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